Cement is one of the most important building materials that is used in building construction. Cement is the most important constituent of concrete and RCC.
Cement is costly material and it should be used wisely and efficiently. If more cement is used then the cost can increase manifold. And on the other hand, if less cement is used then the strength of building can also be compromised.
We have thus come forward with this extensive post about cement used in construction as advised and used by experience and guidelines.
Thumb Rule For Concrete Mix
The general thumb rule for nominal concrete mixes is shown below.
|Concrete Mix||Ratio||Cement Qty (Bags)||Coarse Aggregate (m3)||Fine Aggregate (m3)|
Thumb Rule for Concrete Work
- The volume of concrete required is 0.038 m3/sqft area.
- The standard weight of 1 bag of cement is 50 kg.
- 1 bag of cement is equal to 1.25 cuft or 0.0347 m3.
- In high-rise buildings, 0.5 bags of cement is required per square foot of area.
- The density of cement is 1440 kg/m3.
- The specific gravity of cement is 3.15
- The average cost of concrete is 50 to 80$ per cubic meter.
- The initial setting time of cement is 30 minutes and the final setting time of cement is 10 hrs.
Cement Required In Brickwork
The quantity of cement required in 1 m3 of brickwork for different sizes of brickwork varies. Below is a thumb rule for the brickwork cement required.
|Brickwork size||Cement required (m3)||Cement Quantity (Bags)|
|230mm Brickwork||0.876 m3||25.4|
|115 mm Brickwork||0.218 m3||6.32|
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Thumb Rule for Brickwork for different mix ratio thicknesses of brickwork along with cement sand required are given below.
|Brickwork||Mix Ratio||Mortar Thick (mm)||Cement Qty (Bags/m3)||Sand (m3)|
|100 mm thick||1:4||10||0.15||0.035|
|200 mm thick||1:6||10||1.4||0.30|
|200 mm thick||1:5||10||1.7||0.25|
Important Thumb Rule For Plastering
Cement required changes according to the type of plastering. The cement required for internal plastering is comparatively lowered than the cement required for external plastering.
Below is a table containing cement requirements for different types of plastering work.
|Plastering Type||Cement Qty (Bags/m2)||Cement Qty (Kg/m2)|
Cement sand requirements for wall and ceiling plastering are shown below:
|Plastering Type||Ratio||Plaster Thickness (mm)||Cement (Bags/m2)||Sand (m3/m2)|
|Internal wall Plaster||1:3||15||0.16||0.017|
|External Wall Plaster||1:4||20||0.17||0.024|
Thumb Rule For Cement Masonry Work
Cement requirement in masonry work varies according to cement masonry type and mix. The quantity of cement required for different cement masonry work and mixes is shown below.
|Masonry Type and Mix||Cement Qty (Bags/m2)||Cement Qty (Kg/m2)|
|200mm Masonry Work (1:6)||0.124||6.20|
|150mm Masonry Work (1:6)||0.093||4.65|
|200mm Masonry Work (1:4)||0.206||10.30|
|150mm Masonry Work (1:4)||0.144||7.20|
|100mm Masonry Work (1:4)||0.103||5.15|
Bulk Density of Cement
The density of cement according to type is shown below:
|Cement Types||Density (kg/m3)||Density (KN/m3)|
|Plain Cement Concrete||2400||24|
Types of Concrete
Concrete has evolved over time and different types of concrete is nowadays used in construction. A list of Concrete types used in construction is given below:
- Plain or Ordinary Concrete
- Reinforced Cement Concrete
- Prestressed Concrete
- High-Density Concrete
- Normal Strength Concrete
- High Strength Concrete
- Rapid Strength Concrete
- Precast Concrete
- Light Weight Concrete
- Ready Mix Concrete
- Air Entrained Concrete
- Polymer Concrete
- Self Consolidated Concrete
- High-Performance Concrete
- Shotcrete Concrete
- Pervious Concrete
- Vacuum Concrete
- Pumped Concrete
- Stamped Concrete
- Asphalt Concrete
- Glass Concrete
- Roller Compacted Concrete
Setting Time of Cement
The cement hardens when it is mixed with water. But how much time is required for the setting of cement depends upon the cement type and grade of cement.
There are two setting times, they are
- Initial setting time of cement
- Final Setting Time of Cement
Initial Setting Time of Cement:
The initial setting time of cement is the time taken by the cement paste when it starts to lose its fluidity after water is added to it.
As we know after adding water cement starts to set. The time elapsed after the addition of water and cement fluidity begins to lose is known as the initial setting time of cement.
Initial setting time is measured with the help of Vicat Apparatus. Generally, the initial setting time of cement is 30 minutes.
Final Setting Time:
Time intervention between the first addition of water and when the cement has completely lost its fluidity is known as the final setting time of cement.
The final setting time of cement is 600 for all types of cement.
Below is a list of cement types and the initial and final setting times of respective cement.
|Type of Cement||Initial Setting Time||Final Setting Time|
|Ordinary Portland Cement (33 Grade)||30 minute||600 minute|
|Ordinary Portland Cement (43 Grade)||30 minute||600 minute|
|Ordinary Portland Cement (53 Grade)||30 minute||600 minute|
|Sulphate Resistant Cement||30 minute||600 minute|
|Portland Pozzolona Cement||30 minute||600 minute|
|Rapid Hardening Cement||30 minute||600 minute|
|Slag Cement||30 minute||600 minute|
|High Alumina Cement||30 minute||600 minute|
|Super Sulphated Cement||30 minute||600 minute|
|Low Heat Cement||60 minute||600 minute|
|Masonry Cement||90 minute||600 minute|
|IRS T-40||60 minute||600 minute|